Beyond Transport Policy - exploring and managing the external drivers of transport demand. Illustrative case studies from Europe.

European Environment Agency (EEA) 2008

The transport sector in Europe continues to increase its emissions of greenhouse gases, which remain a key challenge in creating a low-carbon future. The main cause of increased emissions is the growth in transport demand; freight and passenger traffic continue to grow at a very fast pace, outstripping gains made through fuel and energy efficiency. The vast majority of actions to reduce the carbon footprint of the transport sector has been taken within the transport sector itself and ignore the key drivers which create the demand for transport. A better understanding of the reasons behind the growth in transport demand is therefore crucial to formulating effective measures to manage and reduce the emissions.

Freight Transport Logistics Action Plan


Freight Transport Logistics focuses on the planning, organisation, management, control and execution of freight transport operations in the supply chain. It is one of the drivers of European competitiveness and thus a prime contributor to the renewed Lisbon agenda on growth and jobs. Production and distribution networks depend on high-quality, efficient logistics chains to organise the transport of raw materials and finished goods across the EU and beyond. It is primarily a business related activity and a task for industry. Nevertheless, the authorities have a clear role to play in creating the appropriate framework conditions.

Green Paper on Urban Mobility: Towards a New Culture for Urban Mobility

Communication from the Directorate-General for Energy and Transport.

Cities all over Europe face similar problems (congestion, road safety, security, pollution, climate change due to CO2 emissions etc.) and these problems are increasing constantly. Inaction would result in Europe having to pay an even higher price both in economic and environmental terms, as well as for the health and quality of life of European citizens. The objectives of the European transport policy cannot be achieved without a contribution from urban transport. It is time to put urban mobility on the European agenda and open a new chapter in European transport policy. This is the reason why the Commission wishes to open a debate with citizens and all relevant stakeholders at the local, regional, national and European levels. This should result in concrete proposals to achieve a sustainable urban mobility in Europe.

iTREN-2030. Integrated transport and energy baseline until 2030

Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research, Karlsruhe.(ISI)
Funded by European Commission. 2007-2009

iTREN-2030 will extend the forecasting and assessment capabilities of existing tools for the analysis of transport policies. The project will: Develop a linkage between the existing transport analysis tool TRANS-TOOLS and the POLES tool for energy technology and prices, the TREMOVE tool for environmental assessment and vehicle fleet development and the ASTRA tool for studying the economic effects of sectoral policies. Generate a consistent baseline, reflected by each of the four tools, for technology, transport, energy, environment and economic development until 2030.

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Managing the Fundamental Drivers of Transport Demand.

European Conference of Ministers of Transport, 2003

The Seminar Managing the Fundamental Drivers of Transport Demand was organised by the Belgian Presidency of the ECMT in order to prepare the ground for a debate between Ministers on sustainable transport polices at the 2003 Council of Ministers. This meeting marked the 50th anniversary of the Conference and was a time for taking stock of achievements and looking forward to the key challenges for transport policy in the coming years. The contribution of the sector to more sustainable development is clearly a major part of that challenge. The conclusions of the seminar completed the dossier for Ministers on integrated transport and environment policy, complementing conclusions on the reform of transport charges and taxes and recommendations on integrated assessment and effective decision making support, which lies at the heart of more integrated policy making.

A sustainable future for transport: Towards an integrated, technology-led and user-friendly system

Directorate-General for Energy and Transport
European Commission, 2009.

In 2001, the Commission issued a White Paper setting an agenda for the European transport policy throughout 2010. This programme was updated in the mid-term review of 2006. Approaching the end of the 10-year period, it is time to look further ahead and prepare the ground for later policy developments. Transport is a complex system that depends on multiple factors, including the pattern of human settlements and consumption, the organisation of production and the availability of infrastructure. Owing to this complexity,any intervention in the transport sector must be based on a long-term vision for the sustainable mobility of people and goods, not least because policies of a structural character take a long time to implement and must be planned well in advance. That is why transport policies for the next 10 years must be based on a reflection on the future of the transport system that embraces also the following decades. The Commission has launched such a reflection, comprising: an evaluation study on the European transport policy (ETP); a debate within three ‘focus groups’; a study (‘Transvisions’) identifying possible low-carbon scenarios for transport; and a consultation of stakeholders, notably through a highlevel stakeholders’ conference on 9 and 10 March 2009.

Actions for Urban Mobility

Response to the public consultaton of the European Commission on a new Action Plan on Urban Mobility.

EU transport funding should be available for schemes aimed at introducing demand management schemes to cities: research, expertise exchange, system design and set-up costs could be supported from a European level. The EU should also support procurement of low-emission, fuel-efficient and quiet vehicles in public fleets. Training and guidance are needed for decision makers on the inclusion of environmental sustainability aspects in funding applications, transport planning and urban planning. The EU guidance on Sustainable Urban Transport Planning is an excellent starting point which should be further developed.

An action plan for airport capacity, efficiency and safety in Europe

Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee of the Regions

The liberalisation of the European air transport sector is a major success: air traffic in Europe has tripled between 1980 and 2000. Between 1992 and 2005 the number of intra-EU routes has increased by 150%. European citizens can now enjoy a diversified range of air services at an affordable price. Concrete measures have been taken by the European Community in order to sustain this growth whilst maintaining a high level of safety and efficiency: The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) was created in 2002 in order to rationalise European activities in the field of air worthiness; The Single European Sky legislative package adopted in 2004 aims at comprehensively reforming of the Air Traffic Management sector, with a view to increasing the safety and efficiency of the European sky.

Economic Crisis in Europe: Causes, Consequences

European Commission
Directorate-General for Economic and Financial Affairs

In this special report, published on 14 September 2009, the Commission takes stock of Europe’s deepest recession since the 1930s. The report examines the anatomy of the crisis and concludes that the EU’s response was swift and decisive. But decision-makers are now grappling with how best to design ‘exit strategies’ from temporary support measures, and the focus of the policy debate is shifting from crisis control to longer-term measures supporting a return to growth. Key challenges will be balancing fi nancial stability and competition, and restoring fi scal probity without compromising recovery. The EU will have an important coordinating role in ensuring an orderly crisis resolution.

Energy Roadmap 2050

European Commission, 2011

On 15 December 2011, the European Commission adopted the Communication "Energy Roadmap 2050". The EU is committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions to 80-95% below 1990 levels by 2050 in the context of necessary reductions by developed countries as a group. In the Energy Roadmap 2050 the Commission explores the challenges posed by delivering the EU's decarbonisation objective while at the same time ensuring security of energy supply and competitiveness. The Energy Roadmap 2050 is the basis for developing a long-term European framework together with all stakeholders.

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Environmental Sustainability and the Financial Crisis: Linkages and Policy Recommendations

CIGI Working Group on Environment and Resources, 2009

The financial crisis has opened up an extensive debate about the reform of international financial standards and regulations. But the link between such reform and environmental issues has unfortunately been almost entirely neglected by financial officials to date. Policy makers would serve the goals of both financial stability and environmental sustainability by seizing this reform moment to “green” international financial regulations.

European transport policy for 2010: time to decide (white paper)

European Commission, 2001.

The Transport White Paper adopted by the European Commission on 12 September 2001 paints a realistic picture of the present situation with regard to transport and sets out an ambitious action programme comprising 60 or so measures between now and 2010.

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Ex ante evaluation of the TEN-T Multi Annual Programme 2007-2013

ECORYS & Spiekermann & Wegener (S&W)

The Directorate General for Energy and Transport (DG TREN) designed and prepared a proposal for the renewed Community multi-annual Transport European Network Transport (TEN-T) programme for the period 2007-2013. This renewed multi-annual programme (MAP) TEN-T is required to undergo an ex ante evaluation. This report describes the results of this evaluation. The primary objective of this study is to answer the following question - in what way can the relatively small (relative to other financing sources) budget of the MAP TEN-T make a speed -up the realisation of TEN-T while providing European Added Value.

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Ex ante evaluation of the TEN-T Multi Annual Programme 2007-2013

ECORYS & Spiekermann & Wegener (S&W)

The Directorate General for Energy and Transport (DG TREN) designed and prepared a proposal for the renewed Community multi-annual Transport European Network Transport (TEN-T) programme for the period 2007-2013. This renewed multi-annual programme (MAP) TEN-T is required to undergo an ex ante evaluation. This report describes the results of this evaluation. The primary objective of this study is to answer the following question - in what way can the relatively small (relative to other financing sources) budget of the MAP TEN-T make a speed -up the realisation of TEN-T while providing European Added Value.

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Ex Post Evaluation of Cohesion Policy Interventions 2000-2006 Financed by the Cohesion Fund - Contribution to the Development of the Trans European Transport Network

AECOM at the request of the European Commission, February 2012

The main remit of this evaluation is to determine the role of the ISPA/Cohesion Fund interventions in terms of TEN-T network completion. From the information available, it is possible to make a quantitative assessment of the contribution of the ISPA/Cohesion Fund road and rail projects towards the TEN-T network within the EU-16 Member States, between 2000 and 2006.

In the road sector, the 99 approved road projects provided 4,214 km of new or rehabilitated road on the TEN-T network, contributing approximately 10% towards its total length. This contribution was greatest for the EU-10 Member States, in which the 57 projects contributed approximately 20% towards the TEN-T network.

For rail, the 112 approved projects provided 8,477km of new or rehabilitated track/infrastructure on the TEN-T network, or approximately 21% of its total length across these countries. Again, the greatest contribution was to the TEN-T networks within the EU-10 countries, in which the Cohesion Fund and ISPA projects improved almost 40% (over 6,000km).

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Ex post evaluation of cohesion policy programmes 2000-2006 co-financed by the European Fund for Regional Development (Objective 1 and 2) - Transport (Intermediate Report)

Steer Davies Gleave, August 2009

The main objective of this study is to assess the contribution that the ERDF has made to the development of the EU transport system. The study is to focus on the Member States set out in the table below that together account for over 95% of the ERDF resources allocated to transport infrastructure.

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Facing the future: time for the EU to meet global challenges

Mark Boden, Cristiano Cagnin, Vicente Carabias, Karel Haegeman, Totti Könnölä; Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS),  2010

What will the world look like in 2025? What are the possible future disruptive global challenges? And how can the EU position itself to take an active role in shaping a response to them? This publication offers possible answers to these questions through the identification of three main challenges and potential responses to these, and concludes that the main policy issues to be considered at EU level are: policy alignment towards sustainability; social diversity and the use of ICT for citizen empowerment; and the need to embed capabilities for anticipating future challenges to enable these to become new opportunities. The methodology applied combines widely accepted quantified trends by 2025 and beyond with the opinions of experts and policy makers on the likely consequences of these trends and wild cards. A multicriteria quantitative analysis (Robust Portfolio Modelling) was used as a novel element to prioritise issues as a basis for discussion with selected experts and policy makers. This work has been undertaken in close cooperation with the Bureau of European Policy Advisors of the European Commission.

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Financing instruments for the EU's transport infrastructure

European Parliament's Committee on Transport and Tourism, 2011

This study provides an overview of the most important current and future financing instruments and sources for the EU’s transport infrastructure, in particular for the TEN-T. Furthermore, it includes a more analytical discussion of these instruments against the background of changes in the underlying policy framework.

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Freight transport in Europe: Policy issues and future scenarios on trans.border alpine connections

This paper presents an overview of European policy on interconnected cross-border transport networks as well as of severe problems in estimating empirically the avalanche of goods movements in the European Union (EU). In particular, it deals with the Transalpine freight transport case, which represents one of the most challenging operational and policy issues of the present and future - both international (EU) and national (the Alpine countries) - freight transport developments.

Freight Transport Logistics Action Plan. Impact Assessment

Commission Staff Working Document. EC 2007.

This document reports on the results of the assessment of a series of actions the European Commission is considering carrying out to improve the efficiency of services for freight transport logistics in the EU and to secure that these develop in a manner that is in accordance with the concerns over the health of our natural and social environments. These actions may be incorporated in an EU Logistics Action Plan, as called for in the June 2006 Communication on Freight Transport Logistics.

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