Habitat
Cities of tomorrow. Challenges, visions, ways forward
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European Commission, Directorate General for Regional Policy, 2011

More than two thirds of the European population lives in urban areas. Cities are places where both problems emerge and solutions are found. They are fertile ground for science and technology, for culture and innovation, for individual and collective creativity, and for mitigating the impact of climate change. However, cities are also places where problems such as unemployment, segregation and poverty are concentrated. The 'Cities of tomorrow' reflection process will provide inspiration for policymakers and practitioners involved in urban development, whether at local, regional, national or European level.

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19.20.21 Project
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The mission of 19.20.21 Project is a multi-year, multimedia initiative to collect organize and better understand population's effect regarding urban and business planning and its impact on consumers around the world. The project is about what the rise of supercites such as Mexico City will mean for us and the earth. 19.20.21 Project is a promise from Richard Saul Wurman, founder of the outstanding TED Conference, to do a longitudinal research and sharing project focused around the rise of supercities in our world — in particular, the 19 cities that will each have more than 20 million inhabitants in the 21st century.

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Emerging Trends in Real Estate Europe 2011
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Urban Land Institute (ULI) and PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2011

A joint publication by the Urban Land Institute (ULI) and PwC, Emerging Trends in Real Estate Europe is a trends and forecast publication now in its eighth edition. The report provides an outlook on European real estate investment and development trends, real estate finance and capital markets, property sectors, metropolitan areas, and other real estate issues. Emerging Trends in Real Estate Europe 2011 represents a consensus outlook for the future and reflects the views of more than 600 individuals who completed surveys and/or were interviewed as a part of the research process for this report.

 
Human Factors in 2050: Population Trends, Growth and Urbanization
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Arthur C. Nelson
Metropolitan Institute
Virginia Tech, November  2007

Most American states and metropolitan areas have some idea as to the amount of growth they expect over the next several decades, based on estimates of projected demographic, household, market and industry trends. These estimates form the foundation of public policies and are vital for use in goal setting, planning, and implementation of a variety of growth and development strategies. This paper examines a series of projected trends to determine the estimated demand for new housing, commercial, and industrial space over the next half century.

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The World in 2025: Demographic and Urbanisation Trends
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Gijs Beets,
NIDI - Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute
From EU Seminar “The World in 2025”
Brussels, 24 September 2009

The aim of this presentation is discuss how will be the future demographic and urbanisation trends. The main demographic issues covered are the variation in population growth across world regions, the declining number of children, the rising life expectancy, the international migration, the population ageing and the urbanisation process.

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Housing and neighbourhoods monitor 2011
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Joseph Rowntree Foundation, june 2011

This report explores the interaction between housing and neighbourhood trends across the UK throughout the economic downturn and the start of the recovery.

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Housing for Europe: Strategies for Quality in Urban Space, Excellence in Design, Performance in Building
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URBACT Working Group Hopus (Housing Praxis for Urban Sustainability), 2010

Housing for Europe - Strategies for Quality in Urban Space, Excellence in Design, Performance in Building gathers the results of the Urbact II Working Group “Hopus – Housing Praxis for Urban Sustainability”. It is a multi-disciplinary reflection on urban development, encompassing strategies, governance models, guidance instruments and assessment tools, all considered in the wider framework of current European policies on the city, housing and building technology. The looking glass of a two-year transnational exchange project, bringing together universities and local administrations, allows us to understand the great challenge lying ahead in the 21st century: the quest to create cities which are beautiful, healthy, and attractive places to live.

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Learnings, conclusions and guidelines for carrying out urban planning processes in peripheral cities of metropolitan areas.
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NeT-TOPIC New Tools and approaches for managing urban Transformation Processes in Intermediate Cities (URBACT Programme), 2011

Main findings, conclusions and guidelines drawn from the exchange work carried out in the framework of the NeT-TOPIC Thematic Network in relation to the management of urban transformation processes in peripheral cities in metropolitan areas.

 
Trends in Housing for Older People (Conference Report)
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HOPE Conference, 8th of May 2008, Copenhagen (Denmark)

The conference was arranged in order to identify the challenges that housing organisations, including social housing companies, face in relation to the growing numbers of older people. Experience and trends in Sweden, Germany, the Netherlands, the UK and Denmark were presented and discussed by the representatives from the fi ve countries.

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The Fundamental Importance of Buildings in Future EU Energy Saving Policies
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Taskforce of Actors and Stakeholders from the European Construction Sector, July 2010

In the specific field of energy efficiency, the EU has set an indicative target of achieving 20% energy savings by 2020. The construction sector points out that the best, most cost effective and reliable way to achieve the 2020 target is to motivate and to establish the framework necessary for a total transformation in the way that the energy efficiency of existing buildings is addressed.

 
The future of the cities: three scenarios for urban futures

By Oxford Programme of the Future of Cities, 2011

Scenario 1: Gulliver’s World

Gulliver’s World: A world of continued progress and innovation for a reduced number of elites, surrounded by a large, fragmented fringe of developing world power blocks.

Two worlds in one: a core of new eco-prosperity, a fringe of stagnation and struggle, smarter cities and transport, but persistent basic challenges, broader global leadership, but increasing fragmentation, higher quality of life for some but increasing exclusion for most.

Scenario 2: Massive Sociotechnical Revolution

Massive Sociotechnical Revolution: A world where climate change and peak oil severely strain cities across the globe, but produce a revolution in more holistic values led by a generation of young leaders championing a new work-life-ecology balance.

A decade of decline producing social tension, followed by a devastating blow, leading to a youth uprising and a new generation of leaders, who push through new agreements, creating global climate stabilization and smarter and greener cities, with local food economies, increased soft wealth, and greater quality-of-life for all.

Scenario 3: Triumph of the Triads

Triumph of the Triads: A world where global systemic risks exceed our capacity to manage them, producing state failure, economic stagnation and predatory warlordism.

Rapid, disruptive climate change, market failures multiply, international aid falters, conflict and migration ensues, breakdown of critical infrastructure, leads of harsh return to self sufficiency, urban tribalism increases, leading to new family values, warlord tax collectors provide services, for a global age of muddling through.

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Future Scenarios for Social and Affordable Housing

Housing New Zealand Corporation, 2009

Three divergent future scenarios for social and affordable housing in 20 to 40 years' time have been developed to assist long term strategic planning. Experts from across the country assisted with developing scenarios that are thought-provoking and challenging to the status quo. The scenarios are 'Road to Nowhere', 'Eco-nomics', and 'A Stake in the Ground'. Each scenario examines the various effects of key drivers on social and affordable housing, including economic and political drivers, social attitudes and pressures, environmental pressures and responses, and technologies and skills.

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Smart Cities Transforming the 21st century city via the creative use of technology
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ARUP, 2010

Cities are real-time systems, but rarely run as such. In the past many have used Information and Communications Technology (ICT) to improve performance at a departmental level including mobility, utilities, community and eGovernment services. In these cities “smart technologies” are creating more efficient systems and better informed citizens.

Now leading cities have started to push this concept further. They are exploring how smart cities can add value within a strategic framework. This will mean moving from departmental solutions to a city wide approach, creating economies of scale and scope that will result in: economic development and the creation of jobs; promoting resource efficiency and mitigating climate change; providing a greater place to live and work; running cities more efficiently; and supporting communities.

The smart city describes a step-change in both intensity and extent of connection, in that almost all aspects of infrastructure—from transit networks to energy, waste and water; from housing to street trees—can wirelessly broadcast their state and activity in real-time through the use of robust, cheap and discreet sensors. This concept is known as ‘the internet of things’, in which almost every inanimate object can become aware to some degree. As with contemporary engine control systems, smart urban infrastructure can tirelessly watch its own operation, predicting faults before they occur, optimising delivery of resources or services to match demand.

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Smarter Cities
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IBM, 2011

The Smarter City is an interactive experience that helps visualize how cities can become smarter through the interconnection of data, instrumentation of systems and intelligence gained from analytics. With insight from more 2,000 smarter cities projects, IBM has developed the expertise and capabilities to help cities of all sizes become smarter. The experience demonstrates IBM s leadership in the government industry and shows how IBM can help transform complex systems such as transportation, public safety, energy consumption, education, healthcare and economic development.

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Intelligent City Car
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William J. Mitchell, UOC Papers, 2007
Media Lab’s Smart Cities

The new intelligence of cities resides in the increasingly effective combination of digital telecommunication networks (the nerves), ubiquitously embedded intelligence (the brains), sensors and tags (the sensory organs), and software (the knowledge and cognitive competence). This does not exist in isolation from other urban systems, or connected to them only through human intermediaries. There is a growing web of direct connections to the mechanical and electrical systems of buildings, household appliances, production machinery, process plants, transportation systems, electrical grids and other energy supply networks, water supply and waste removal networks, systems that provide life safety and security, and management systems for just about every imaginable human activity. Furthermore, the cross-connections among these systems —both horizontal and vertical— are growing.

City Car promises very high levels of personal mobility at low cost, and effectively complements transit systems by, among other things, efficiently solving the “last mile” problem. This project illustrates the growing potential of ubiquitously embedded intelligence and networking to revolutionize the ways we design and operate buildings and cities. The crucial enabling technology of the City Car is an omnidirectional robot wheel that has been developed. This wheel contains an electric drive motor, suspension, steering, and braking. It is fully drive-by-wire, with just an electric cable and a data cable going in, and there is a simple, snap-on mechanical connection to the chassis.

This highly modularized vehicle architecture, together with elimination of the traditional engine and drive train, offers great flexibility in design of the body and interior. It has taken advantage of this to create small, lightweight passenger vehicles that fold and stack like shopping carts at the supermarket or luggage carts at the airport. The independent, omnidirectional wheels provide extraordinary maneuverability; cars can spin on their own wheelbases instead of making u-turns, and can parallel park by slipping in sideways. Depending upon context, it can parked six to eight folded and stacked City Cars in one traditional parking space.

Although City Cars can work quite nicely as privately owned vehicles, they provide the greatest sustainability benefits when they are integrated into citywide, intelligently coordinated, shared-use mobility systems. The idea is to locate stacks of city cars at major origin and destination points, such as transit stops, airports, hotels, apartment buildings, supermarkets, convenience stores, universities, hospitals, and so on. You just swipe a credit card, drive a vehicle away from the front of the stack, and return it to the rear of another stack at your final

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Smart Buildings
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ICT for Sustainable Growth Unit, Information Society and Media Directorate-General, European Commission, July 2009

According to the European Union Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings (EPBD 2002/91/EC), more than 40% of the energy consumption in Europe is due to heating, cooling and lighting operations within buildings. Moreover, buildings are the largest source of CO2 emissions in the EU15 (including their electric power consumption), and their total energy consumption has been rising since 1990. As such, construction stakeholders need to deal with new challenges including addressing construction from the viewpoint of sustainable development – energy effi  ciency and decrease of GHG emissions, improved innovation in the built environment for better comfort and safety.

European citizens have become increasingly sensitive to environmental issues. Supported by legislation and incentives (often at the local level), citizens and businesses alike have taken the initiative to better insulate homes and buildings, to better monitor and control their energy performance, and to avail of and install renewable energy sources such as solar panels and wind turbines. It is clear that if “green buildings” are to become commonplace, that this can only be facilitated by ICT.

Today, most of those who are charged with implementing energy efficient solutions are fl ying blind. Buildings - which account for 40% of energy end-use in the EU - provide a prime example. Building components (cement, steel, insulation, glass windows, coatings) and systems (lighting, heating, ventilation and air conditioning appliances) are developed by independent companies whose products are tested for individual performance independently of each other. While this must be encouraged and is necessary, it is insufficient. A whole building approach to the design and operation of buildings, where these components are integrated in a way that they reduce energy consumption through cooperation, is rarely used. This often leads to signifi cant systemlevel inefficiencies. The ICT sector can deliver simulation, modelling, analysis, monitoring and visualisation tools that are vitally needed to facilitate a whole building approach to both the design and operation of buildings.

The local hub of the energy control system is the Energy Management Device (EMD), which is an independent functional entity that conveys control logic for both active and stand-by appliances and energy management functions integrated through a multimode of communication interfaces with the home network. The EMD is controlled by the gateway, using a bus interface that grants access to multiple EMDs from a single access-point, either locally or remotely via an operator network. The EMD must have a unified architecture, which will feature generic interfaces towards the household appliances, the power network and the home network.

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Achieving energy efficiency in housing
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Power House Europe (Project partly funded by European Commission – Intelligent Energy Europe Programme), 2010

Almost 1200 local cooperative and social housing organizations throughout the EU were asked what it would take to help them to radically reduce energy consumption and increase the use of renewable energy in the homes they build, own and manage. They were asked to outline what they perceive to be the key challenges and the main obstacles blocking progress in this field.

By way of example: New ICT based Neighbourhood Management Systems will allow peer-to-peer sharing of energy produced through re-newable schemes; New ICT based meters will allow households not only to buy but also to sell energy; and ICT will allow information on energy consumption of every energy-consuming appliance in a home or a building to be provided in real-time, in a user friendly way, thereby empowering citizens to take decisions that lead to energy savings.

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A New Architecture for Reduction of Energy Consumption of Home Appliances
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A Capone, M Barros, H Hrasnica, S Tompros. Paper elaborated for the European conference TOWARDS eENVIRONMENT, Prague, Czech Republic, March 25-27, 2009 (Conference Paper of the AIM Project-FP7-)

The main innovation in managing the energy of household appliances is the bridge between home communication and power distribution networks with the aim to control the power distribution through communication services. Network operators may use the interfaces of the residential gateway to implement services for mobile and fixed terminals featuring remote energy monitoring and control of the home environment. Power distribution network operators have particular interest to monitor the energy consumed by large blocks of users on macroscopic level. Accessing households through such a system is an efficient and cost effective way of accomplishing such task.

Residential users may control their environment through the service interface of the gateway that is able to get connected with any type of home terminal, like e.g. wireless PDA, embedded devices, et.. Moreover, the system is able to collect additional information from the environment through a sensor network and create user profiles in order to perform a partially automatic configuration of the energy management policies. Home terminals distribute commands to the appropriate appliance via the Energy Management Device (EMD), affecting its energy consumption attributes.

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Survey on perception of quality of life in 75 European cities

Urban Audit, European Commission, 2010

Initiated by Directorate-General for Regional Policy, the European Urban Audit involves 27 National Statistical Offices working together under Eurostat coordination. Data are collected on more than 300 variables describing the quality of life in 300 European cities. Based on this unique data collection, a report has been produced. Complementary information has also been gathered through a survey on how inhabitants perceive quality of life in their city.

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Housing conditions in Europe in 2009

Eurostat, European Commission, 2011

Access to good quality and affordable accommodation is a fundamental need and a right. But meeting this need is still a significant challenge in a number of European Union countries. Poor housing conditions point to a risk of poverty and social exclusion. In 2009, 6.0 % of the EU population suffered from severe housing deprivation (see methodological notes). The most frequent problems were noise from the neighbourhood (22.2 %), overcrowding (17.8 %) and pollution, grime or other environmental problems (16.5 %). In addition, 12.2 % of people in the EU lived in households affected by high housing costs.

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